Intelligence Predicts Hussein´s Reaction to Attack - U.S. and British Analyses Are Highly Speculative, and Miscalculations Could Be Costly in Event of War (WASHINGTON POST) By Walter Pincus 12/26/02 Page A23)
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U.S. and British intelligence analysts are closely monitoring Iraqi
President Saddam Hussein, watching as he appears publicly to embrace
U.N. inspections while wooing Europeans and seeking to rally fellow
Arabs in the face of the American military buildup.
As U.S. forces continue to strengthen in anticipation of possible
war, the Western intelligence community is producing estimates for
policymakers of the Iraqi leader´s potential actions, attitudes and
intentions in the event of an attack. Because Hussein lives in a
secluded and closely guarded environment, these analyses are highly
speculative, senior administration officials said.
U.S. intelligence officials said they believe that although Hussein
maintains a tight grip on his government, he could be overthrown by a
military coup if U.S.-led ground troops were about to invade his
country. "The expectation has been that the closer [Iraqi military
leaders] perceive the end is near, the more people inside will be
willing to raise their hands," one senior intelligence analyst said
this week. He cautioned, however, that "it is unlikely to happen
until after they hear guns start firing."
Past miscalculations on anti-Hussein coups have brought brutal
retaliation, including death and torture, to hundreds and perhaps
more than a thousand Iraqi officers -- even many never involved in
any plotting, a former CIA case officer said. "Attacks on Baghdad
from cruise missiles and dropping of bombs alone, won´t do the
trick," the former officer said. "There have to be troops coming on
The intelligence community is also following Hussein´s rare public
appearances. Last Sunday, he received a delegation from Belarus
headed by Nikolai Ivanchenko, the deputy head of President Alexander
Lukashenko´s administration. Belarus is one of the few countries
accused by the United States of selling prohibited weapons to
Baghdad, and Michael Kozak, the U.S. ambassador to Belarus, made the
charge openly last month at a conference in Washington sponsored by
the American Enterprise Institute. He described Lukashenko as someone
who has sold illegal arms to Iraq and, thus, chosen the wrong side in
the war on terrorism.
Last spring, the State Department accused Belarus of training Iraqi
forces to use antiaircraft systems, but at last month´s meeting,
Kozak said U.S. details on Lukashenko´s arms transfers to Baghdad
must remain secret to protect sources and methods of collection.
Previous U.N. inspections found that in the mid-1990s Belarus sold
Baghdad machine tools capable of turning out components for missiles
and high-speed centrifuges that Iraq could use to process highly
enriched uranium used in bombs. In 1998, U.N. inspectors saw similar
machines in Iraq, although they were said to have been used to make
lenses for artillery shells.
At last Sunday´s meeting, according to Belarus radio, Hussein told
the Belarus delegation that he was getting little help from other
countries in his efforts to lift the embargo on this type of
machinery because of accusations that he was still making weapons of
mass destruction. "We already told the world that we don´t produce
these kinds of ammunition, but the world doesn´t seem to care,"
Hussein was quoted as saying.
Iraq´s news service reported that Hussein then promised
Ivanchenko "huge reciprocal cooperation" with Belarus in the future.
Last October, Baghdad moved to build up relations with Saudi Arabia,
among other countries, playing host to Saudi businessmen for the
first time since the 1990 invasion of Kuwait. Two weeks ago,
telephone links between the two countries were reestablished, and
this week Baghdad announced the awarding of $44 million in contracts
for vehicles, milk powder and air conditioners.
Iraq´s trade minister, Mohammed Mahdi Saleh, appeared on Qatar-based
al-Jazeera television earlier this week to call on all Arab nations
to help his country. Echoing an approach that Deputy Prime Minister
Tariq Aziz took a week earlier, he said Washington, aided by London,
wanted to divide and conquer the Arab world. "Saudi Arabia, Syria,
Egypt, Iran and Turkey will be the next targets of the Anglo-American
plan to split up the Arab and Islamic world," Saleh said.
At home, however, preparations of the public as well as the military
continue to be made for a possible war. Radio Free Iraq, which
broadcasts into Iraq from Europe, reported that the Iraq Ministry of
Commerce is planning to distribute six-month food allocations in one
swoop, something not done during the eight-year Iran-Iraq war. Some
analysts said Baghdad was trying to reassure the public so that
should war come they would be willing to fight rather than just turn
to the invaders for food.
Iraq has even agreed last week, through the Red Cross, to open a new
border crossing with Iran that would allow humanitarian relief
financed by the U.N.´s oil-for-food program. The agreement came just
weeks after Iraq exile groups met in Tehran with Iranian government
Hussein´s recent moves to neutralize Kuwait and other Gulf states,
however, have appeared to backfire.
An attempt earlier this month to "apologize" to Kuwait for his 1990
invasion caused a firestorm when he linked it to an appeal to
Kuwaitis to oppose their leaders´ cooperation with Washington. Kuwait
has since accused the Iraqi regime of attempting to divide the oil-
rich emirate and incite additional terror attacks against U.S. troops
stationed there since the Persian Gulf War.
Kuwaiti lawmakers blasted Hussein´s message as a "declaration of war"
and vowed unequivocal support for the emirate´s rulers and the
presence of U.S. troops there.
Khaled al-Razni, director of the Kuwait embassy´s information office,
told reporters, "The apology reflects the desperation of Saddam
Hussein to save his government and present his aggressive designs on
Kuwait." The Arab League subsequently criticized the apology, as did
the Gulf Cooperation Council, a group made up of leaders of Saudi
Arabia and the Gulf States, most of which play host to U.S. military
facilities. The council accused Hussein of "inciting violence and
supporting and encouraging terrorism" and called on him to prove to
U.N. inspectors that he has no weapons of mass destruction.
Since Hussein´s "apology," Iraq has moved on several fronts to ease
the Kuwaiti anger. On Sunday, it was announced that Iraq told the
United Nations that it is prepared to meet in Jordan next month to
discuss the whereabouts of 605 Kuwaitis still missing from the 1990
war and at the same time return works of art stolen 12 years ago from
the Gulf country. This came after Iraq returned in October other
stolen Kuwaiti archives.
"The Kuwaitis are still not satisfied," a senior U.S. official said
this week (© 2002 The Washington Post Company 12/26/02)
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